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Methods of Teaching Science - Dr Pratik Mungekar

About Dr Pratik Mungekar:

  • Dr Pratik started teaching at 16 & have been working in the field of education & research as a Professor, Scientist, Counsellor for 12 years .

  • Taught to more than 8000+ students and guided 4000+ ( Career Counseling) till date and the count is still on

  • Honoured with 650+ National State and International Awards for his contribution in the field of Teaching and Research.

  • Received 250+ Honorary Doctorates from all over the world & also sets 15 world records..

  • written many papers and articles in various international Magazines, journals and in books.

  • Co-authored many books and written one book on Sustainable Development Goals which has got many International Awards.

on 25th April 2022 , Dr Pratik Mungekar delivered his talk on Methods of Teaching Science (Basics of Science-Conceptual Study Techniques)

if you want to view the complete lecture , please use this link

“Science does not simply sit down & pray for things to happen but seeks to find out why things happen. It experiments and tries again and again and sometimes fails and sometimes succeeds & so bit by bit it adds to human knowledge. This modern world of ours is very different from the ancient world or the middle ages. This great difference is largely due to Science.” - Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

As very rightly quoted above our every day is different from the earlier days & this is largely due to the contribution of science in our life. We can’t live a happy life without Science. Science has become an integral part of our life. Science has also influenced educational enterprise & hence it is also an integral part of our educational system. Learning science has become an unavoidable part of general education. In this chapter, we shall discuss the meaning importance & place of science in the school curriculum and general and specific instructional objectives we shall also learn about the organization of science curriculum using a disciplinary approach & integrated approach.

Meaning of General Science

The term science & general science are used synonymously.

Einstein defines science as “An attempt to make the chaotic diversity of our sense-experience observation an respond has goals to logically uniform systems of thought.”

According to the Columbia dictionary “Science is an accumulated & systematized learning, in general usage restricted to natural phenomenon.”

According to ‘Science Manpower Project’, “Science is a cumulative and endless series of empirical observation which result in the formation of concepts & theories, with both concepts & theories being subject to modification in the light of the further empirical observation. Science is both a body of knowledge & the process of acquiring & refining knowledge.”

According to Griggs, “In the literal sense science means the pursuit of knowledge but it has a wider connotation for our purpose, and can be said to mean a knowledge of nature in the widest possible form.”

Based on these definitions of science, we can say that

1. science is the experience of observations and study of natural phenomena.

2. It is organized & systematized learning.

3. It is a body of cumulative & ordered observations.

4. It is knowledge based on observations and experiments.

5. Science is a process as well as a product.

Importance of General Science

The modern civilization is a scientific civilization. In this age, modern society is

completely drawn into the scientific environment. Today science has become an integral part of our life & living. Now we cannot think of a world without science. The importance of general science in day to day life may be summarized as under.

1. Agricultural Advancement

2. Health

3. Trade & Industry

4. Education

5. Other beneficiary areas:- These include

a. Transportation

b. Banking

c. Communication

d. Entertainment

e. Digitalization & Media

Place in School Curriculum

Science has now become a compulsory subject in the school curriculum because of its multifarious value to the individual as well as the society.

1. Intellectual Value

2. Vocational Value

3. Aesthetic Value

4. Utilitarian Value

5. Cultural Value

6. Moral Value

7. Psychological Value

8. Adjustment Value

9. Leisure Time Value

General & Specific Instrumental Objectives

The subject taught in the schools hasgoals/aims their own identity, importance & educational values. The educational value of a subject is established by goals / aims & objectives. Which are achieved through the study of the subject. The aims or long term goals can be regarded as expression of strategy while objectives are specific, immediate and attainable goals, specific to one subject, precise & clearly defined, objectives are more directly concerned with what specifically is being attempted over a relatively short period.

An objective is a point or an end view of the possible achievement in terms of what a pupil is to be able to do when the whole educational system is directed towards educational aims.

The objectives are

1. General Objectives

2.Specific Instrumental Objectives

The major issue in the field of education today is organizing science curriculathe in an effective manner.

Therefore are two major approaches regarding organization of science curriculum viz. Disciplinary Approach & Integrated Approach. These two approaches are explained below.

This approach is also known as the subject approach or the traditional approach. as each subject is separately taught by the teacher in the area of the particular subject in question. For example science was traditionally taught as a subject with different compartments such as physics, biology, and chemistry as separate components of the science subject.

Similarly language was taught as a separate subject from other subjects. English was taught as being different from Hindi, Oriya, History, Geography etc. Thus each subject has a well defined boundary from which there is no connection to the other.

Thus the approach in which every subject is taught as a separate discipline is called as disciplinary approach. This approach is based on the premise that, the subject is a store house of facts, methods, theories, concepts & generalizations. In disciplinary approach the focus is more on the subject & its content rather than the process. In India the disciplinary approach is very popular in the higher secondary level. It shall be the responsibility of teacher to show the connection between different disciplines (subjects).

Characteristics of disciplinary approach

1.In-depth Conceptual Knowledge Every subject has detailed and in-depth conceptual knowledge

2.Disciplinary based teaching Each subject is taught as a separate discipline.

3.Content based teaching The teaching of disciplinary based curriculum largely based on content.

4.Source of knowledge/information In disciplinary approach the teacher is the main source of knowledge / information.

5.Main purpose The main purpose of disciplinary approach is to prepare specialist, scientists etc.

6.Mastery of the subject The learner is expected to master the subject matter.

7.Chalk & talk based teaching This approach mostly leads to chalk & talk based teaching.

8.Text book is main authority This approach restrains student observations, values or conclusions different from the text book which is the main authority in disciplinary approach.

9.Importance /Merits of the disciplinary approach

10.Expert in the subject

11.This approach develops expertise in particular subject

12.Subject Growth

13.The disciplinary approach foster the growth of the subject.

14.Time Saving

15.Disciplinary approach is very time saving in terms of course completion.

16.Detailed Conceptual Understanding

17.The disciplinary approach of organizing science curriculum provides detailed conceptual

understanding of the subject.

5.Theory building

6.The disciplinary approach is very useful in building theory in particular subject/discipline.

7.Higher level thinking

As in disciplinary approach the subject is store house of theories, concepts, generalizations etc. This lead to higher level thinking.


1.Less opportunity for creativity

2.The disciplinary approach does not provide much opportunities for students creativity.


4.Disinterest in particular subject / discipline may lead to dropout.

5.Require expert teachers

6.The disciplinary approach requires highly knowledgeable & expert teachers.

7.Less Scope of socialization & social skills

Isolated teaching reduces the scope of socialization and social skills

1.Integrated Approach

“An integrated approach allows learners to explore, gather, process, refine and present

information about the topics they want to investigate without the constraints imposed by traditional subject barriers. “(Pigdon & Woolley, 1992)

Integrated approach encourages student to see the interconnectedness and interrelationships between the different curriculum areas. Instead of focusing on learning in isolated curriculum areas, an integrated approach is based on skill development around a particular theme that is relevant to students of a particular class.

Characteristics of Integrated approach

Wide conceptual knowledge Integrated approach provides an opportunity for broader & wider conceptual knowledge.

Child-centered teaching

Integrated approach promotes child centered teaching

Integration of skills with contents

Integrated approach of curriculum organization promote integration of skills with contents.

Teacher as a mediator

The role of a teacher is mediator between knowledge and child.

Use of modern method

The integrated approach requires use of modern methods of teaching such as inquiry based teaching.


No rigid disciplines exist. Integrated approach is flexible.

Preparation of future citizens:-

The main purpose of integrated approach is to prepare the future citizens of a society.


The approach is open to new ideas and procedures.

Multi learning Environment:-

The approach requires multi learning environment such as classroom, lab, outdoor, computer, internet etc.

Importance / Merits of integrated approach

Detailed conceptual understanding

This approach help the learner to get detailed conceptual understanding of the content.

Choice based selection of discipline / subject

Integrated approach help the students to select discipline / subject according to their own interest.


This approach foster creativity among learner.

Promotion of modern methods

This approach promotes modern methods of teaching such as collaborative learning, cooperative learning etc.

Development of self concept & socialization